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硅谷投资新热点:会学习的机器(图)

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2018年10月24日 09:21:51
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(  [人)(工)(智)(能)(这)(几)(年)(的)(进)(展)(在)(很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(都)(要)(归)(功)(于)(新)(的)(编)(程)(技)(术)(。其)(中)(最)(重)(要)(的)(就)(是)(“机)(器)(学)(习)(”,包)(括)(训)(练)(机)(器)(进)(行)(识)(别)(和)(通)(过)(运)(算)(大)(量)(数)(据)(做)(出)(预)(测)(等)(]  硅)(谷)(现)(在)(流)(行)(新)(的)(风)(尚)(,其)(实)(是)(已)(有)(半)(个)(世)(纪)(历)(史)(之)(久)(的)(人)(工)(智)(能)(。  资)(金)(正)(像)(热)(浪)(一)(样)(涌)(入)(这)(一)(行)(业)(里)(的)(初)(创)(公)(司)(。ContextRelevant公)(司)(创)(办)(人)(斯)(蒂)(芬)(·普)(尔)(普)(拉)((StephenPurpura)说)(:“这)(是)(目)(前)(最)(火)(的)(领)(域)(。”  普)(尔)(普)(拉)(自)(己)(的)(AI公)(司)(自)(从)(2012年)(建)(立)(以)(来)(已)(筹)(得)(共)(超)(过)(4400万)(美)(元)(资)(金)(。根)(据)(他)(的)(估)(计)(,有)(超)(过)(170家)(初)(创)(企)(业)(已)(经)(搭)(上)(了)(人)(工)(智)(能)(这)(辆)(顺)(风)(车)(。  人)(工)(智)(能)(中)(新)(的)(加)(入)(者)(都)(乐)(观)(地)(认)(为)(,随)(着)(技)(术)(的)(发)(展)(,曾)(经)(的)(愿)(景)(终)(于)(到)(了)(实)(现)(的)(时)(刻)(—人)(类)(与)(机)(器)(以)(一)(种)(前)(所)(未)(有)(的)(新)(方)(式)(实)(现)(互)(动)(,机)(器)(则)(将)(以)(意)(想)(不)(到)(的)(方)(式)(介)(入)(人)(类)(世)(界)(。  初)(创)(公)(司)(蜂)(拥)(而)(上)(  “从)(技)(术)(上)(讲)(,这)(是)(向)(电)(脑)(输)(入)(代)(码)(来)(发)(布)(命)(令)(的)(模)(式)(,向)(电)(脑)(通)(过)(观)(察)(人)(类)(行)(为)(来)(学)(习)(模)(式)(的)(转)(变)(。”另)(一)(个)(人)(工)(智)(能)(创)(业)(者)(丹)(尼)(尔)(·纳)(德)(勒)((DanielNadler)说)(。纳)(德)(勒)(的)(公)(司)(Kensho最)(近)(募)(集)(到)(1500万)(美)(元)(以)(实)(现)(一)(个)(颇)(具)(雄)(心)(的)(目)(标)(:让)(计)(算)(机)(取)(代)(那)(些)(高)(薪)(职)(位)(,比)(如)(金)(融)(分)(析)(师)(。“我)(们)(不)(再)(将)(之)(称)(为)(人)(工)(智)(能)(,而)(是)(把)(它)(叫)(做)("将)(人)(力)(密)(集)(型)(的)(知)(识)(处)(理)(工)(作)(自)(动)(化)("的)(过)(程)(。”他)(说)(。  投)(资)(者)(的)(从)(众)(心)(理)(能)(够)(在)(一)(定)(程)(度)(上)(解)(释)(,为)(什)(么)(自)(从)(上)(一)(轮)(“大)(数)(据)(”热)(潮)(之)(后)(,针)(对)(人)(工)(智)(能)(领)(域)(初)(创)(公)(司)(的)(投)(资)(又)(成)(为)(了)(现)(在)(最)(热)(门)(的)(趋)(势)(。当)(然)(,大)(多)(数)(投)(资)(的)(资)(金)(规)(模)(还)(不)(算)(大)(,这)(也)(反)(映)(了)(大)(多)(数)(初)(创)(企)(业)(自)(身)(还)(处)(于)(早)(期)(阶)(段)(。但)(是)(投)(资)(者)(和)(筹)(得)(资)(金)(初)(创)(企)(业)(的)(数)(量)(都)(证)(明)(了)(资)(本)(对)(这)(个)(领)(域)(目)(前)(极)(度)(青)(睐)(。硅)(谷)(许)(多)(著)(名)(风)(险)(投)(资)(公)(司)(,包)(括)(Khosla和)(Greylock公)(司)(,还)(有)(伊)(隆)(·马)(斯)(克)(和)(彼)(得)(·泰)(尔)(等)(科)(技)(名)(人)(,都)(是)(这)(个)(领)(域)(最)(活)(跃)(的)(支)(持)(者)(。还)(有)(一)(些)(公)(司)(出)(于)(对)(自)(己)(日)(常)(使)(用)(技)(术)(的)(需)(要)(也)(非)(常)(感)(兴)(趣)(,比)(如)(高)(盛)(。  现)(在)(每)(一)(家)(风)(险)(投)(资)(公)(司)(都)(要)(在)(投)(资)(组)(合)(里)(加)(上)(一)(部)(分)(人)(工)(智)(能)(领)(域)(的)(投)(资)(项)(目)(,纳)(德)(勒)(说)(,所)(有)(投)(资)(者)(都)(希)(望)(在)(科)(技)(领)(域)(“下)(一)(件)(大)(事)(”爆)(发)(前)(先)(拥)(有)(一)(些)(相)(关)(的)(股)(权)(。  盈)(利)(模)(式)(存)(疑)(  人)(工)(智)(能)(这)(几)(年)(的)(进)(展)(在)(很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(都)(要)(归)(功)(于)(新)(的)(编)(程)(技)(术)(。其)(中)(最)(重)(要)(的)(就)(是)(“机)(器)(学)(习)(”,包)(括)(训)(练)(机)(器)(进)(行)(识)(别)(和)(通)(过)(运)(算)(大)(量)(数)(据)(做)(出)(预)(测)(等)(。这)(些)(技)(术)(虽)(然)(激)(发)(了)(许)(多)(初)(创)(公)(司)(投)(身)(于)(此)(,但)(如)(何)(给)(这)(些)(看)(上)(去)(很)(有)(前)(途)(的)(技)(术)(找)(到)(一)(个)(可)(靠)(的)(商)(业)(模)(式)(依)(然)(是)(个)(问)(题)(。  “多)(数)(人)(工)(智)(能)(公)(司)(都)(像)(瑞)(士)(军)(刀)(”,ExpectLab公)(司)(的)(CEO蒂)(姆)(·塔)(特)(尔)((TimTuttle)最)(近)(融)(到)(了)(1300万)(美)(元)(。“这)(些)(技)(术)(可)(以)(做)(很)(多)(事)(情)(,但)(还)(没)(人)(知)(道)(什)(么)(才)(是)(最)(有)(价)(值)(的)(服)(务)(。”结)(果)(就)(像)(所)(有)(人)(都)(在)(拓)(荒)(,塔)(特)(尔)(说)(,创)(业)(者)(们)(争)(相)(把)(这)(些)(技)(术)(尝)(试)(应)(用)(到)(他)(们)(能)(想)(到)(的)(所)(有)(领)(域)(。  普)(尔)(普)(拉)(则)(认)(为)(机)(器)(学)(习)(无)(法)(作)(为)(一)(个)(独)(立)(的)(商)(业)(模)(式)(而)(存)(在)(,更)(像)(是)(应)(该)(被)(收)(购)(来)(改)(善)(其)(他)(服)(务)(的)(一)(种)(技)(术)(。支)(持)(者)(们)(则)(认)(为)(,正)(是)(因)(为)(人)(工)(智)(能)(和)(大)(数)(据)(一)(样)(不)(是)(一)(项)(单)(一)(的)(应)(用)(,所)(以)(能)(够)(广)(泛)(应)(用)(于)(各)(项)(服)(务)(。比)(如)(机)(器)(学)(习)(可)(以)(更)(好)(地)(追)(踪)(消)(费)(者)(心)(理)(变)(化)(,通)(过)(对)(消)(费)(者)(行)(为)(的)(识)(别)(,公)(司)(可)(以)(时)(刻)(推)(送)(给)(消)(费)(者)(他)(最)(想)(看)(到)(的)(东)(西)(,在)(消)(费)(者)(最)(需)(要)(的)(时)(刻)(联)(系)(他)(们)(,甚)(至)(能)(觉)(察)(到)(消)(费)(者)(心)(生)(厌)(倦)(并)(及)(时)(改)(变)(这)(个)(情)(况)(。  初)(创)(企)(业)(之)(中)(的)(激)(烈)(竞)(争)(,其)(实)(也)(发)(生)(在)(很)(多)(大)(型)(科)(技)(巨)(头)(公)(司)(之)(间)(。比)(如)(谷)(歌)(、IBM和)(脸)(谱)(网)((Facebook)都)(已)(经)(在)(该)(领)(域)(投)(入)(巨)(资)(。这)(些)(公)(司)(对)(目)(前)(的)(进)(展)(几)(乎)(都)(讳)(莫)(如)(深)(,但)(通)(过)(它)(们)(发)(布)(的)(一)(些)(产)(品)(,专)(家)(认)(为)(有)(很)(多)(技)(术)(已)(经)(走)(在)(了)(前)(面)(。比)(如)(谷)(歌)(的)(一)(项)(技)(术)(可)(以)(从)(YouTube视)(频)(里)(识)(别)(出)(猫)(;Facebook则)(已)(经)(有)(了)(对)(照)(片)(里)(的)(人)(进)(行)(面)(部)(识)(别)(的)(功)(能)(;IBM超)(级)(计)(算)(机)(沃)(森)(这)(样)(几)(乎)(具)(有)(一)(定)(认)(知)(能)(力)(的)(系)(统)(。“大)(集)(团)(正)(在)(试)(图)(建)(立)(一)(种)(可)(以)(解)(决)(一)(切)(的)(技)(术)(,我)(们)(则)(试)(图)(解)(决)(不)(同)(的)(问)(题)(。”塔)(特)(尔)(说)(。  人)(工)(智)(能)(技)(术)(目)(前)(最)(常)(见)(的)(基)(本)(用)(途)(有)(三)(个)(。首)(先)(,得)(益)(于)(越)(来)(越)(精)(确)(的)(机)(器)(识)(别)(能)(力)(,计)(算)(机)(一)(直)(以)(来)(的)(困)(扰)(—图)(像)(识)(别)(,如)(今)(已)(变)(得)(容)(易)(得)(多)(。其)(次)(,同)(样)(的)(技)(术)(也)(被)(用)(于)(帮)(助)(计)(算)(机)(进)(行)(语)(音)(识)(别)(,比)(如)(IBM沃)(森)(系)(统)(所)(使)(用)(到)(的)(技)(术)(。再)(者)(则)(是)(相)(关)(性)(识)(别)(,这)(可)(以)(帮)(助)(公)(司)(向)(客)(户)(提)(供)(更)(个)(性)(化)(的)(在)(线)(内)(容)(,或)(者)(更)(有)(效)(地)(定)(位)(线)(上)(广)(告)(。  作)(者)(:宋)(冰)(
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