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我国城镇化现实:土地城镇化超前

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2018年10月24日 09:00:17
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(  城)(市)(化)(变)(局)(下)(的)(疯)(狂)(与)(反)(思)(  程)(旭)(邓)(永)(飞)(唐)(思)(思)(广)(州)(、韶)(关)(、深)(圳)(报)(道)(  这)(是)(一)(个)(疯)(狂)(的)(时)(代)(,也)(是)(一)(个)(需)(要)(反)(思)(的)(时)(代)(。  目)(前)(,发)(达)(国)(家)(城)(镇)(人)(口)(占)(总)(人)(口)(的)(比)(例)(都)(在)(70%以)(上)(,有)(的)(国)(家)(已)(经)(超)(过)(了)(90%。中)(国)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(也)(已)(进)(入)(了)(一)(个)(新)(的)(历)(史)(发)(展)(阶)(段)(。据)(十)(八)(大)(报)(告)(预)(计)(,到)(2020年)(,中)(国)(实)(际)(城)(镇)(化)(率)(将)(超)(过)(60%。  中)(国)(城)(镇)(化)(的)(列)(车)(正)(在)(高)(速)(行)(驶)(,城)(镇)(化)(带)(来)(的)(多)(种)(正)(面)(效)(应)(正)(在)(日)(益)(显)(现)(,但)(城)(镇)(化)(导)(致)(的)(负)(面)(作)(用)(也)(在)(加)(速)(累)(积)(。  国)(家)(总)(理)(李)(克)(强)(就)(任)(后)(启)(动)(了)(新)(一)(轮)(城)(镇)(化)(战)(略)(。可)(以)(预)(见)(,中)(国)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(又)(将)(开)(始)(一)(个)(新)(的)(征)(程)(。站)(在)(这)(个)(时)(间)(节)(点)(上)(,我)(们)(有)(必)(要)(对)(城)(镇)(化)(进)(行)(梳)(理)(和)(反)(思)(。  1.城)(进)(村)(退)(  城)(镇)(化)(所)(到)(之)(处)(,乡)(村)(保)(留)(几)(十)(年)(甚)(至)(上)(百)(年)(的)(特)(色)(,被)(急)(速)(抹)(去)(,这)(种)(差)(异)(性)(最)(终)(只)(剩)(下)(单)(调)(的)(一)(致)(性)(。最)(终)(的)(结)(果)(是)(,我)(们)(无)(法)(摆)(脱)(“城)(市)(”,乡)(村)(只)(成)(为)(了)(记)(忆)(。  湖)(北)(省)(京)(山)(县)(徐)(杨)(村)(,九)(成)(青)(壮)(年)(外)(出)(打)(工)(,全)(村)(户)(籍)(人)(口)(200多)(人)(,实)(际)(上)(常)(年)(在)(村)(里)(生)(活)(的)(,只)(有)(不)(足)(百)(人)(,大)(都)(是)(老)(弱)(病)(残)(幼)(。  儿)(女)(在)(外)(打)(工)(,老)(人)(独)(守)(乡)(村)(,留)(守)(儿)(童)(没)(有)(了)(父)(母)(在)(身)(边)(的)(体)(贴)(与)(呵)(护)(。村)(子)(缺)(少)(产)(业)(带)(动)(逐)(渐)(凋)(敝)(,环)(境)(保)(护)(堪)(忧)(……  这)(是)(如)(今)(很)(多)(农)(村)(的)(真)(实)(写)(照)(。  在)(城)(镇)(化)(高)(歌)(猛)(进)(的)(同)(时)(,大)(量)(农)(村)(正)(在)(无)(可)(救)(药)(地)(迅)(速)(衰)(落)(。  同)(时)(,城)(郊)(结)(合)(部)(的)(大)(量)(乡)(村)(,被)(城)(镇)(化)(的)(浪)(潮)(席)(卷)(,诸)(多)(特)(色)(民)(居)(被)(一)(栋)(栋)(格)(式)(统)(一)(的)(高)(楼)(大)(厦)(替)(代)(;乡)(村)(的)(淡)(雅)(、宁)(静)(不)(复)(存)(在)(,取)(而)(代)(之)(的)(是)(灯)(红)(酒)(绿)(、喧)(嚣)(与)(热)(闹)(。  城)(镇)(化)(所)(到)(之)(处)(,乡)(村)(保)(留)(几)(十)(年)(甚)(至)(上)(百)(年)(的)(特)(色)(,被)(急)(速)(抹)(去)(,这)(种)(差)(异)(性)(最)(终)(只)(剩)(下)(单)(调)(的)(一)(致)(性)(。最)(终)(的)(结)(果)(是)(,我)(们)(走)(到)(哪)(里)(都)(觉)(得)(似)(曾)(相)(识)(,都)(无)(法)(摆)(脱)(“城)(市)(”,乡)(村)(只)(成)(为)(了)(记)(忆)(。  新)(中)(国)(成)(立)(,一)(直)(到)(1978年)(改)(革)(开)(放)(之)(前)(的)(29年)(里)(,中)(国)(的)(城)(市)(化)(率)(仅)(仅)(从)(1949年)(的)(10.64%上)(升)(到)(1978年)(的)(17.92%,城)(市)(化)(进)(程)(非)(常)(缓)(慢)(。  这)(一)(时)(期)(的)(城)(市)(化)(中)(:政)(府)(是)(城)(市)(化)(动)(力)(机)(制)(的)(主)(体)(,城)(市)(对)(非)(农)(业)(劳)(动)(力)(的)(吸)(纳)(能)(力)(很)(低)(,有)(着)(鲜)(明)(的)(计)(划)(经)(济)(体)(制)(色)(彩)(。  1978年)(改)(革)(开)(放)(后)(,中)(国)(的)(城)(市)(化)(进)(程)(明)(显)(加)(快)(,城)(市)(化)(率)(从)(1978年)(的)(17.92%上)(升)(到)(1992年)(的)(27.63%,平)(均)(每)(年)(约)(提)(高)(0.7个)(百)(分)(点)(,相)(当)(于)(改)(革)(开)(放)(前)(的)(3倍)(。  改)(革)(开)(放)(以)(来)(,政)(府)(主)(导)(的)(城)(市)(化)(模)(式)(逐)(渐)(被)(制)(度)(安)(排)(和)(投)(资)(引)(导)(的)(方)(式)(所)(取)(代)(,传)(统)(体)(制)(与)(市)(场)(调)(节)(机)(制)(并)(存)(。  于)(是)(,高)(楼)(大)(厦)(拔)(地)(而)(起)(,大)(量)(人)(口)(在)(城)(市)(生)(活)(居)(住)(了)(下)(来)(,城)(镇)(数)(量)(和)(规)(模)(都)(有)(一)(定)(程)(度)(的)(增)(长)(。  城)(镇)(化)(是)(人)(类)(社)(会)(发)(展)(到)(一)(定)(时)(期)(必)(然)(出)(现)(的)(现)(象)(,也)(是)(中)(国)(社)(会)(经)(济)(发)(展)(的)(必)(然)(趋)(势)(。在)(某)(种)(程)(度)(上)(,城)(镇)(化)(承)(担)(着)(拉)(动)(内)(需)(的)(重)(要)(使)(命)(—未)(来)(中)(国)(的)(内)(需)(新)(动)(力)(将)(来)(自)(潜)(在)(的)(农)(村)(人)(口)(,城)(镇)(化)(势)(必)(释)(放)(大)(量)(内)(需)(。  国)(家)(行)(政)(学)(院)(经)(济)(学)(部)(主)(任)(张)(占)(斌)(教)(授)(认)(为)(,十)(八)(大)(后)(,城)(镇)(化)(被)(赋)(予)(了)(更)(多)(的)(意)(义)(,上)(升)(为)(党)(的)(意)(志)(和)(国)(家)(意)(志)(。  遗)(憾)(的)(是)(,中)(国)(正)(在)(狂)(飙)(突)(进)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(,也)(带)(来)(了)(诸)(多)(问)(题)(。  2.日)(益)(加)(剧)(的)(“二)(元)(”格)(局)(  过)(去)(三)(十)(年)(,中)(小)(城)(市)(没)(有)(大)(城)(市)(发)(展)(得)(快)(,不)(是)(因)(为)(政)(策)(错)(了)(,而)(是)(由)(于)(配)(套)(措)(施)(没)(有)(到)(位)(。  “我)(这)(次)(回)(了)(一)(趟)(老)(家)(,乡)(亲)(们)(反)(映)(医)(疗)(水)(平)(始)(终)(跟)(不)(上)(来)(,拔)(个)(牙)(还)(反)(反)(复)(复)(拔)(了)(好)(多)(次)(,而)(且)(还)(是)(熟)(人)(都)(这)(样)(。广)(州)(虽)(然)(人)(多)(,但)(医)(疗)(水)(平)(发)(达)(得)(多)(。”一)(位)(在)(广)(州)(某)(统)(战)(部)(门)(工)(作)(的)(市)(民)(在)(私)(下)(和)(记)(者)(聊)(天)(时)(感)(概)(。  建)(国)(以)(来)(,中)(国)(政)(府)(一)(直)(施)(行)(资)(源)(向)(城)(市)(倾)(斜)(的)(政)(策)(,这)(造)(成)(了)(影)(响)(中)(国)(社)(会)(格)(局)(的)(“城)(乡)(二)(元)(”结)(构)(,导)(致)(城)(乡)(之)(间)(的)(巨)(大)(差)(距)(;改)(革)(开)(放)(以)(来)(,中)(央)(政)(府)(和)(地)(方)(政)(府)(一)(直)(试)(图)(缩)(小)(城)(乡)(差)(距)(,消)(除)(“二)(元)(”结)(构)(,但)(事)(实)(上)(,在)(很)(多)(地)(方)(,区)(域)(中)(心)(城)(市)(与)(周)(边)(县)(、乡)(之)(间)(的)(差)(距)(却)(日)(益)(加)(大)(—大)(城)(市)(继)(续)(在)(膨)(胀)(,因)(为)(聚)(集)(了)(比)(较)(多)(的)(优)(质)(公)(共)(资)(源)(,而)(中)(小)(城)(市)(、小)(城)(镇)(的)(基)(础)(设)(施)(建)(设)(、发)(展)(等)(却)(受)(到)(了)(限)(制)(。  事)(实)(上)(,每)(一)(轮)(基)(础)(投)(资)(建)(设)(和)(政)(策)(扶)(持)(,必)(然)(首)(先)(落)(住)(于)(城)(市)(。以)(北)(京)(为)(例)(,2008年)(奥)(运)(会)(期)(间)(,北)(京)(开)(展)(了)(以)(轨)(道)(交)(通)(为)(重)(点)(的)(交)(通)(网)(络)(建)(设)(,绿)(化)(面)(积)(及)(绿)(化)(整)(治)(工)(作)(也)(加)(快)(了)(进)(度)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,22个)(城)(中)(村)(、60个)(城)(市)(边)(角)(地)(、五)(环)(内)(102个)(行)(政)(村)(整)(治)(项)(目)(也)(加)(快)(了)(实)(施)(进)(度)(。北)(京)(居)(民)(们)(或)(多)(或)(少)(地)(也)(在)(这)(一)(进)(程)(中)(得)(益)(。  城)(市)(具)(有)(极)(大)(的)(资)(源)(吸)(附)(效)(应)(。产)(业)(资)(源)(、人)(力)(资)(源)(乃)(至)(政)(策)(资)(源)(都)(像)(溪)(水)(一)(般)(流)(入)(“洼)(地)(”。  与)(此)(同)(时)(,较)(高)(的)(收)(入)(也)(是)(吸)(引)(人)(们)(涌)(向)(城)(市)(的)(原)(因)(。历)(史)(经)(验)(表)(明)(,一)(个)(国)(家)(或)(地)(区)(的)(居)(民)(收)(入)(水)(平)(,往)(往)(与)(该)(国)(或)(地)(区)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(率)(成)(正)(比)(。居)(民)(收)(入)(水)(平)(较)(高)(的)(发)(达)(国)(家)(,城)(镇)(化)(率)(一)(般)(达)(到)(80%。  许)(多)(学)(者)(会)(以)(我)(国)(过)(去)(三)(十)(年)(直)(辖)(市)(和)(大)(城)(市)(的)(人)(口)(增)(长)(速)(度)(,比)(中)(小)(城)(市)(快)(得)(多)(这)(一)(城)(市)(发)(展)(的)(实)(际)(结)(果)(,来)(证)(明)(那)(种)(控)(制)(特)(大)(城)(市)(和)(大)(城)(市)(规)(模)(而)(鼓)(励)(中)(小)(城)(市)(和)(中)(小)(城)(镇)(发)(展)(的)(道)(路)(是)(失)(败)(的)(。但)(是)(这)(种)(简)(单)(化)(的)(证)(明)(是)(站)(不)(住)(脚)(的)(,因)(为)(人)(口)(向)(城)(市)(的)(集)(中)(是)(为)(了)(获)(得)(良)(好)(和)(丰)(富)(的)(工)(作)(机)(会)(、教)(育)(机)(会)(、医)(疗)(资)(源)(、文)(化)(娱)(乐)(设)(施)(。  过)(去)(的)(三)(十)(年)(中)(,大)(量)(优)(质)(教)(育)(、医)(疗)(、文)(化)(资)(源)(被)(集)(中)(到)(直)(辖)(市)(和)(省)(会)(城)(市)(等)(中)(心)(城)(市)(,为)(了)(获)(得)(这)(些)(资)(源)(,社)(会)(精)(英)(们)(当)(然)(要)(想)(尽)(办)(法)(进)(入)(这)(些)(城)(市)(。  在)(行)(政)(等)(级)(和)(权)(力)(高)(度)(集)(中)(的)(体)(制)(下)(,原)(本)(草)(根)(的)(企)(业)(也)(被)(每)(个)(上)(一)(级)(政)(府)(以)(更)(大)(的)(优)(惠)(政)(策)(吸)(引)(到)(更)(大)(的)(城)(市)(,而)(很)(多)(地)(方)(政)(府)(又)(利)(用)(廉)(价)(的)(得)(到)(补)(贴)(的)(工)(业)(用)(地)(,来)(留)(住)(其)(实)(不)(应)(该)(再)(留)(在)(大)(城)(市)(的)(低)(端)(制)(造)(业)(。所)(有)(这)(一)(切)(导)(致)(北)(京)(、上)(海)(和)(所)(有)(省)(会)(等)(中)(心)(城)(市)(的)(急)(速)(膨)(胀)(。  国)(务)(院)(发)(展)(研)(究)(中)(心)(社)(会)(部)(副)(部)(长)(贡)(森)(在)(专)(访)(中)(提)(到)(,2011年)(北)(京)(市)(每)(千)(人)(拥)(有)(卫)(生)(人)(员)(数)(14.2,全)(国)(平)(均)(水)(平)(则)(是)(4.6。另)(据)(报)(道)(,北)(京)(市)(2012年)(在)(公)(共)(交)(通)(公)(用)(事)(业)(上)(的)(补)(贴)(就)(高)(达)(170亿)(,以)(2000万)(常)(住)(人)(口)(算)(,人)(均)(一)(年)(补)(贴)(850元)(。我)(们)(就)(不)(难)(理)(解)(为)(什)(么)(有)(这)(么)(多)(人)(拼)(命)(往)(北)(京)(挤)(了)(。  大)(约)(十)(年)(前)(,意)(大)(利)(特)(伦)(托)(大)(学)(博)(士)((Universita‘degliStudidiTrento)、美)(国)(美)(利)(坚)(大)(学)(国)(际)(关)(系)(学)(院)((TheAmericanUniversity,SchoolofInternationalService)博)(士)(后)(,浙)(江)(大)(学)(管)(理)(学)(院)(副)(教)(授)(张)(刚)(峰)(有)(位)(学)(生)(是)(浙)(江)(一)(个)(镇)(的)(党)(委)(书)(记)(,他)(告)(知)(张)(,在)(他)(任)(职)(的)(那)(个)(镇)(,所)(收)(缴)(的)(地)(税)(需)(要)(上)(交)(给)(省)(政)(府)(的)(是)(20%,上)(交)(市)(里)(的)(是)(40%,上)(交)(给)(所)(属)(区)(的)(是)(12%,留)(在)(镇)(里)(的)(是)(28%。如)(果)(将)(所)(有)(国)(税)(和)(地)(税)(加)(在)(一)(起)(,那)(么)(,留)(在)(本)(地)(的)(只)(有)(4-5%。  “所)(以)(,过)(去)(三)(十)(年)(,中)(小)(城)(市)(没)(有)(大)(城)(市)(膨)(胀)(得)(快)(,不)(是)(因)(为)(政)(策)(错)(了)(,而)(是)(由)(于)(配)(套)(措)(施)(没)(有)(到)(位)(。由)(此)(我)(们)(大)(致)(明)(白)(了)(小)(城)(镇)(和)(小)(城)(市)(发)(展)(相)(对)(缓)(慢)(,是)(因)(为)(资)(源)(都)(被)(大)(城)(市)(给)(截)(走)(了)(。”张)(刚)(峰)(说)(。  与)(欧)(美)(国)(家)(越)(是)(小)(城)(镇)(越)(是)(宜)(居)(的)(特)(点)(相)(比)(,由)(于)(资)(源)(投)(入)(的)(不)(足)(,特)(别)(是)(教)(育)(、卫)(生)(、文)(化)(资)(源)(的)(投)(入)(不)(足)(,我)(国)(的)(中)(小)(城)(市)(和)(城)(镇)(缺)(少)(了)(某)(种)(宜)(居)(性)(,但)(是)(在)(过)(去)(三)(十)(年)(的)(城)(市)(化)(过)(程)(中)(,却)(还)(是)(这)(些)(中)(小)(城)(市)(和)(城)(镇)(吸)(纳)(了)(绝)(大)(部)(分)(的)(城)(市)(化)(人)(口)(。江)(浙)(一)(带)(的)(一)(些)(县)(城)(,三)(十)(年)(前)(可)(能)(就)(只)(有)(一)(条)(或)(两)(条)(主)(街)(,人)(口)(不)(足)(一)(二)(万)(,今)(天)(这)(些)(小)(城)(市)(的)(人)(口)(很)(多)(多)(达)(一)(二)(十)(万)(,是)(三)(十)(年)(前)(的)(十)(倍)(。  3.半)(城)(镇)(化)(和)(被)(城)(镇)(化)(  城)(镇)(化)(主)(要)(有)(两)(方)(面)(的)(内)(容)(,一)(个)(是)(人)(口)(城)(镇)(化)(,一)(个)(是)(土)(地)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(。在)(中)(国)(的)(现)(实)(中)(,人)(口)(城)(镇)(化)(的)(速)(度)(比)(较)(缓)(慢)(,甚)(至)(严)(重)(滞)(后)(,但)(是)(土)(地)(城)(镇)(化)(却)(超)(速)(前)(行)(  在)(今)(年)(9月)(份)(召)(开)(的)(21世)(纪)(夏)(季)(达)(沃)(斯)(论)(坛)(上)(,国)(家)(行)(政)(学)(院)(经)(济)(学)(部)(教)(授)(张)(占)(斌)(教)(授)(提)(出)(,当)(下)(中)(国)(存)(在)(着)(明)(显)(的)(半)(城)(镇)(化)(现)(象)(。  半)(城)(镇)(化)(是)(特)(指)(中)(国)(城)(市)(化)(进)(程)(中)(的)(一)(种)(现)(象)(,具)(体)(说)(来)(,是)(指)(农)(村)(人)(口)(向)(城)(市)(人)(口)(转)(化)(过)(程)(中)(的)(一)(种)(不)(完)(整)(状)(态)(,其)(表)(现)(为)(,农)(民)(已)(经)(离)(开)(乡)(村)(到)(城)(市)(就)(业)(与)(生)(活)(,但)(他)(们)(在)(劳)(动)(报)(酬)(、子)(女)(教)(育)(、社)(会)(保)(障)(、住)(房)(等)(许)(多)(方)(面)(并)(不)(能)(与)(城)(市)(居)(民)(享)(有)(同)(等)(待)(遇)(,在)(城)(市)(没)(有)(选)(举)(权)(和)(被)(选)(举)(权)(等)(政)(治)(权)(利)(,不)(能)(真)(正)(融)(入)(城)(市)(社)(会)(。  从)(这)(个)(角)(度)(说)(,也)(有)(专)(家)(认)(为)(,按)(照)(政)(府)(提)(供)(的)(教)(育)(、医)(疗)(、社)(会)(保)(障)(等)(公)(共)(服)(务)(水)(平)(的)(标)(准)(来)(看)(,中)(国)(实)(际)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(率)(大)(概)(只)(有)(35%-36%。  “这)(中)(间)(有)(大)(量)(的)(农)(民)(工)(没)(有)(市)(民)(化)(,他)(们)(其)(中)(很)(大)(一)(部)(分)(已)(经)(在)(城)(市)(里)(工)(作)(生)(活)(了)(多)(年)(,有)(的)(十)(几)(年)(甚)(至)(二)(十)(几)(年)(。但)(这)(些)(农)(民)(工)(没)(有)(享)(受)(到)(与)(市)(民)(同)(样)(的)(成)(果)(与)(福)(利)(。”张)(占)(斌)(说)(。  根)(据)(国)(家)(统)(计)(局)(和)(清)(华)(大)(学)(中)(国)(经)(济)(社)(会)(数)(据)(中)(心)(等)(机)(构)(的)(调)(查)(显)(示)(,在)(过)(去)(20年)(间)(,农)(转)(非)(比)(例)(仅)(仅)(增)(长)(不)(到)(8个)(百)(分)(点)(,户)(籍)(转)(变)(近)(乎)(停)(滞)(。这)(导)(致)(在)(工)(业)(化)(过)(程)(中)(,尤)(其)(是)(在)(快)(速)(工)(业)(化)(、城)(市)(化)(过)(程)(中)(,一)(方)(面)(农)(民)(的)(农)(业)(土)(地)(转)(化)(为)(非)(农)(业)(用)(地)(不)(可)(避)(免)(的)(发)(生)(了)(,而)(失)(地)(农)(民)(却)(无)(法)(完)(成)(真)(正)(的)(身)(份)(转)(变)(,无)(法)(享)(受)(城)(镇)(化)(带)(来)(的)(对)(应)(福)(利)(待)(遇)(。  当)(然)(,在)(一)(些)(经)(济)(发)(达)(地)(区)(,一)(些)(失)(地)(农)(民)(能)(够)(获)(得)(很)(高)(的)(征)(地)(补)(偿)(,一)(夜)(之)(间)(成)(为)(亿)(万)(付)(富)(翁)(。但)(这)(并)(不)(是)(普)(遍)(现)(象)(。  与)(老)(一)(代)(农)(民)(工)(相)(比)(,新)(生)(代)(流)(动)(人)(口)(已)(经)(由)(生)(存)(型)(向)(发)(展)(型)(转)(变)(,其)(进)(入)(城)(市)(不)(仅)(仅)(是)(为)(了)(挣)(钱)(,他)(们)(追)(求)(的)(不)(是)(户)(口)(转)(变)(的)(“形)(”,而)(是)(公)(共)(服)(务)(的)(“实)(”。所)(以)(,尽)(管)(有)(些)(地)(区)(经)(济)(发)(展)(很)(快)(,农)(民)(失)(地)(后)(得)(到)(的)(补)(偿)(也)(比)(较)(高)(,但)(征)(地)(拆)(迁)(后)(提)(供)(就)(业)(机)(会)(和)(城)(镇)(社)(会)(保)(障)(的)(比)(例)(较)(低)(。  户)(籍)(制)(度)(障)(碍)(加)(上)(吸)(引)(力)(不)(足)(的)(社)(会)(保)(障)(导)(让)(很)(多)(农)(民)(在)(城)(镇)(化)(浪)(潮)(中)(随)(波)(逐)(流)(,他)(们)(并)(没)(有)(变)(成)(真)(正)(的)(城)(市)(人)(,他)(们)(只)(是)(“被)(城)(镇)(化)(”了)(。  城)(镇)(化)(主)(要)(有)(两)(方)(面)(的)(内)(容)(,一)(个)(是)(人)(口)(城)(镇)(化)(,一)(个)(是)(土)(地)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(。在)(中)(国)(的)(现)(实)(中)(,人)(口)(城)(镇)(化)(的)(速)(度)(比)(较)(缓)(慢)(,甚)(至)(严)(重)(滞)(后)(,但)(是)(土)(地)(城)(镇)(化)(却)(超)(速)(前)(行)(。  据)(相)(关)(数)(据)(显)(示)(,1995年)(以)(来)(,我)(国)(城)(镇)(化)(经)(历)(了)(历)(史)(上)(最)(快)(的)(发)(展)(阶)(段)(,有)(数)(据)(表)(明)(,从)(2000年)(至)(2010年)(的)(10年)(内)(,国)(内)(城)(市)(建)(设)(用)(地)(扩)(张)(83%,全)(国)(城)(镇)(建)(成)(区)(面)(积)(扩)(张)(了)(64.45%,但)(同)(期)(包)(括)(农)(民)(工)(在)(内)(的)(城)(镇)(人)(口)(仅)(增)(长)(45.9%,土)(地)(城)(镇)(化)(与)(人)(口)(城)(镇)(化)(速)(度)(极)(不)(匹)(配)(。土)(地)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(速)(度)(,要)(远)(快)(于)(人)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(速)(度)(。  国)(家)(发)(改)(委)(的)(调)(查)(显)(示)(,很)(多)(地)(级)(市)(,包)(括)(省)(会)(城)(市)(,也)(包)(括)(县)(城)(都)(还)(在)(扩)(建)(新)(城)(,建)(新)(城)(、建)(开)(发)(区)(是)(经)(济)(发)(展)(也)(是)(城)(镇)(化)(的)(客)(观)(表)(现)(,有)(积)(极)(的)(意)(义)(,但)(新)(城)(新)(区)(建)(设)(是)(不)(是)(应)(该)(“遍)(地)(开)(花)(”、“万)(马)(争)(先)(”,值)(得)(商)(榷)(。  4.“透)(支)(”城)(镇)(化)(  按)(照)(世)(界)(城)(市)(的)(发)(展)(规)(律)(,当)(城)(镇)(化)(率)(达)(到)(40%-60%的)(时)(候)(,标)(志)(着)(城)(市)(进)(入)(成)(长)(关)(键)(期)(,“城)(市)(病)(”进)(入)(多)(发)(期)(和)(爆)(发)(期)(。  改)(革)(开)(放)(以)(来)(,特)(别)(是)(进)(入)(20世)(纪)(90年)(代)(以)(来)(,由)(于)(中)(央)(财)(力)(基)(本)(没)(有)(土)(地)(建)(设)(的)(费)(用)(,地)(方)(政)(府)(只)(好)(依)(靠)(土)(地)(财)(政)(,城)(市)(通)(过)(低)(价)(征)(用)(农)(村)(的)(耕)(地)(或)(者)(集)(体)(建)(设)(用)(地)(资)(源)(,获)(取)(了)(大)(量)(的)(资)(金)(,通)(过)(透)(支)(土)(地)(红)(利)(,解)(决)(城)(市)(的)(基)(础)(设)(施)(建)(设)(。  由)(于)(认)(识)(偏)(差)(,很)(多)(地)(方)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(被)(搞)(成)(了)(地)(产)(化)(,成)(为)(了)(竞)(相)(兴)(建)(高)(楼)(大)(厦)(的)(一)(场)(盛)(宴)(。  “现)(在)(城)(镇)(化)(问)(题)(是)(有)(不)(少)(认)(识)(误)(区)(和)(行)(动)(误)(区)(,其)(实)(城)(镇)(化)(跟)(高)(楼)(大)(厦)(没)(有)(必)(然)(联)(系)(,当)(然)(高)(楼)(大)(厦)(是)(有)(这)(样)(味)(道)(,但)(城)(镇)(化)(不)(仅)(仅)(是)(高)(楼)(大)(厦)(,城)(镇)(化)(不)(仅)(仅)(是)(人)(居)(住)(在)(社)(区)(,关)(键)(是)(在)(于)(生)(活)(质)(量)(和)(生)(活)(品)(位)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(。”2013年)(9月)(28日)(召)(开)(的)(“粤)(苏)(进)(化)(论)(”主)(题)(论)(坛)(上)(,华)(南)(理)(工)(大)(学)(经)(贸)(学)(院)(副)(院)(长)(田)(秋)(生)(指)(出)(。  山)(东)(日)(照)(市)(委)(书)(记)(杨)(军)(在)(谈)(日)(照)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(经)(验)(时)(表)(示)(,一)(些)(地)(方)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(出)(现)(了)(大)(、包)(、全)(的)(误)(区)(。所)(谓)(“大)(包)(全)(”,是)(指)(连)(一)(个)(县)(城)(都)(要)(打)(造)(一)(个)(总)(部)(经)(济)(。他)(认)(为)(,在)(新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(建)(设)(中)(,并)(不)(一)(定)(非)(要)(集)(中)(到)(几)(百)(平)(方)(公)(里)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(,而)(是)(以)(经)(济)(社)(会)(自)(然)(发)(展)(来)(聚)(集)(一)(些)(单)(元)(式)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(。  在)(这)(一)(进)(程)(中)(,农)(民)(的)(土)(地)(做)(出)(了)(巨)(大)(的)(贡)(献)(。然)(而)(,随)(着)(建)(设)(用)(地)(面)(积)(的)(减)(少)(导)(致)(土)(地)(价)(格)(走)(高)(,再)(加)(上)(征)(地)(越)(来)(越)(困)(难)(,土)(地)(出)(让)(金)(比)(例)(将)(下)(降)(,“土)(地)(财)(政)(”将)(难)(以)(支)(撑)(城)(市)(建)(设)(。城)(市)(建)(设)(资)(金)(压)(力)(难)(题)(亟)(需)(破)(解)(。与)(此)(相)(关)(的)(还)(有)(农)(民)(安)(置)(问)(题)(。  此)(外)(,不)(合)(理)(的)(城)(市)(规)(划)(和)(城)(市)(扩)(容)(,加)(上)(在)(城)(市)(建)(设)(过)(程)(中)(,基)(本)(建)(设)(投)(入)(不)(足)(,污)(水)(处)(理)(和)(垃)(圾)(处)(理)(不)(善)(,造)(成)(山)(川)(河)(流)(被)(污)(染)(、自)(然)(生)(态)(系)(统)(遭)(到)(破)(坏)(,透)(支)(着)(有)(限)(的)(“环)(境)(红)(利)(”。  由)(于)(缺)(少)(规)(划)(与)(布)(局)(,不)(少)(乡)(村)(又)(成)(了)(大)(城)(市)(扩)(展)(以)(后)(新)(的)(“城)(乡)(结)(合)(部)(”,重)(蹈)(了)(大)(城)(市)(“城)(中)(村)(”脏)(乱)(差)(的)(覆)(辙)(。此)(外)(,我)(国)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(还)(存)(在)(诸)(如)(缺)(乏)(产)(业)(支)(撑)(、“贵)(族)(化)(”以)(及)(基)(础)(设)(施)(建)(设)(滞)(后)(等)(问)(题)(。  按)(照)(世)(界)(城)(市)(的)(发)(展)(规)(律)(,当)(城)(镇)(化)(率)(达)(到)(40%-60%的)(时)(候)(,标)(志)(着)(城)(市)(进)(入)(成)(长)(关)(键)(期)(,“城)(市)(病)(”进)(入)(多)(发)(期)(和)(爆)(发)(期)(。此)(时)(,继)(续)(推)(进)(城)(镇)(化)(将)(面)(临)(更)(为)(严)(峻)(的)(挑)(战)(,我)(国)(当)(前)(显)(然)(也)(正)(面)(临)(着)(这)(种)(挑)(战)(。  5.国)(家)(战)(略)(下)(的)(新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(  新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(必)(须)(实)(现)(包)(容)(性)(发)(展)(,让)(所)(有)(人)(享)(受)(城)(镇)(化)(发)(展)(的)(成)(果)(,特)(别)(是)(中)(低)(收)(入)(者)(,城)(镇)(化)(应)(该)(对)(他)(们)(的)(生)(活)(质)(量)(有)(较)(大)(提)(升)(  过)(去)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(之)(路)(显)(然)(已)(经)(难)(以)(为)(继)(,无)(论)(是)(政)(府)(还)(是)(民)(间)(都)(将)(眼)(光)(投)(向)(了)(“新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(”。  “走)(中)(国)(特)(色)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(道)(路)(”在)(党)(的)(第)(十)(六)(次)(全)(国)(代)(表)(大)(会)(上)(被)(提)(出)(,强)(调)(中)(国)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(必)(须)(坚)(持)(“可)(持)(续)(”的)(道)(路)(。  十)(七)(大)(对)(此)(作)(进)(一)(步)(补)(充)(,按)(照)(统)(筹)(城)(乡)(、布)(局)(合)(理)(、节)(约)(土)(地)(、功)(能)(完)(善)(、以)(大)(带)(小)(的)(原)(则)(,促)(进)(大)(中)(小)(城)(市)(和)(小)(城)(镇)(协)(调)(发)(展)(。  “新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(”的)(概)(念)(在)(十)(八)(大)(上)(被)(清)(晰)(提)(及)(,新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(坚)(持)(“公)(平)(共)(享)(”、“集)(约)(高)(效)(”、“可)(持)(续)(”三)(个)(原)(则)(,由)(速)(度)(扩)(张)(向)(质)(量)(提)(升)(“转)(型)(”。  2013年)(3月)(17日)(,在)(十)(二)(届)(全)(国)(人)(大)(一)(次)(会)(议)(举)(行)(的)(记)(者)(会)(上)(,李)(克)(强)(说)(:“中)(国)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(,其)(规)(模)(之)(大)(为)(人)(类)(历)(史)(所)(未)(有)(,不)(仅)(对)(中)(国)(的)(发)(展)(很)(重)(要)(,而)(且)(会)(影)(响)(世)(界)(。”  李)(克)(强)(总)(理)(强)(调)(,城)(镇)(化)(需)(要)(协)(调)(,城)(镇)(化)(不)(是)(简)(单)(的)(人)(口)(比)(例)(增)(加)(,而)(是)(在)(产)(业)(支)(撑)(,人)(居)(环)(境)(,社)(会)(保)(障)(,真)(正)(实)(现)(由)(乡)(到)(城)(的)(转)(变)(。以)(人)(为)(核)(心)(,以)(质)(量)(为)(关)(键)(,使)(城)(镇)(真)(正)(成)(为)(安)(居)(乐)(业)(之)(处)(,而)(且)(也)(强)(调)(,城)(镇)(化)(是)(复)(杂)(的)(系)(统)(工)(程)(。  这)(是)(新)(一)(届)(政)(府)(对)(城)(镇)(化)(问)(题)(的)(决)(心)(和)(表)(态)(。专)(家)(预)(测)(,城)(镇)(化)(会)(成)(为)(下)(一)(轮)(经)(济)(周)(期)(的)(一)(个)(重)(要)(课)(题)(。  现)(在)(的)(普)(遍)(共)(识)(是)(,新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(是)(以)(城)(乡)(统)(筹)(、城)(乡)(一)(体)(、产)(城)(互)(动)(、节)(约)(集)(约)(、生)(态)(宜)(居)(、和)(谐)(发)(展)(为)(基)(本)(特)(征)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(,是)(大)(中)(小)(城)(市)(、小)(城)(镇)(、新)(型)(农)(村)(社)(区)(协)(调)(发)(展)(、互)(促)(共)(进)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(。  据)(国)(务)(院)(发)(展)(研)(究)(中)(心)(公)(布)(的)(数)(据)(显)(示)(,我)(国)(农)(民)(工)(总)(量)(超)(过)(2.5亿)(人)(,20%的)(农)(民)(工)(子)(女)(无)(法)(入)(读)(全)(日)(制)(公)(办)(中)(小)(学)(校)(,参)(加)(除)(工)(伤)(保)(险)(之)(外)(的)(其)(他)(城)(镇)(职)(工)(社)(会)(保)(险)(的)(比)(率)(均)(未)(超)(过)(30%。大)(部)(分)(地)(区)(未)(将)(农)(民)(工)(纳)(入)(住)(房)(保)(障)(对)(象)(。  在)(张)(占)(斌)(看)(来)(,新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(应)(该)(“以)(人)(为)(核)(心)(”,重)(点)(推)(动)(农)(业)(转)(移)(人)(口)(城)(镇)(化)(,有)(序)(推)(进)(农)(业)(转)(移)(人)(口)(市)(民)(化)(,努)(力)(实)(现)(城)(镇)(基)(本)(公)(共)(服)(务)(常)(住)(人)(口)(全)(覆)(盖)(,让)(农)(民)(进)(城)(“进)(得)(来)(、留)(得)(下)(、有)(尊)(严)(”。  “新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(的)(要)(求)(是)(不)(断)(提)(升)(城)(镇)(化)(建)(设)(的)(质)(量)(内)(涵)(。与)(传)(统)(提)(法)(比)(较)(,新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(更)(强)(调)(内)(在)(质)(量)(的)(全)(面)(提)(升)(,也)(就)(是)(要)(推)(动)(城)(镇)(化)(由)(偏)(重)(数)(量)(规)(模)(增)(加)(向)(注)(重)(质)(量)(内)(涵)(提)(升)(转)(变)(。”陕)(西)(西)(咸)(新)(区)(党)(工)(委)(书)(记)(王)(军)(在)(2013年)(达)(沃)(斯)(论)(坛)(上)(提)(出)(。  产)(业)(体)(系)(的)(建)(设)(也)(是)(新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(的)(应)(有)(之)(义)(。中)(国)(国)(际)(经)(济)(交)(流)(中)(心)(常)(务)(副)(理)(事)(长)(郑)(新)(立)(曾)(表)(示)(,在)(推)(进)(城)(镇)(化)(时)(应)(注)(重)(城)(镇)(产)(业)(经)(济)(的)(培)(育)(,重)(视)(二)(、三)(产)(业)(的)(转)(型)(升)(级)(。逐)(步)(形)(成)(大)(中)(小)(城)(市)(和)(小)(城)(镇)(、城)(市)(和)(农)(村)(合)(理)(分)(工)(、特)(色)(突)(出)(、功)(能)(互)(补)(的)(产)(业)(发)(展)(格)(局)(。实)(现)(新)(型)(城)(镇)(化)(与)(工)(业)(化)(、信)(息)(化)(、农)(业)(现)(代)(化)(的)(互)(动)(。  6.分)(散)(与)(集)(中)(并)(行)(  未)(来)(,在)(条)(件)(允)(许)(的)(乡)(村)(,集)(中)(式)(居)(住)(的)(社)(区)(会)(越)(来)(越)(多)(,大)(量)(分)(散)(式)(布)(局)(的)(小)(乡)(村)(或)(许)(将)(会)(逐)(步)(消)(失)(,现)(在)(国)(内)(很)(多)(地)(方)(已)(经)(出)(现)(了)(这)(种)(趋)(势)(。  在)(粤)(北)(瑶)(族)(居)(住)(山)(区)(,原)(来)(一)(个)(山)(头)(才)(一)(两)(户)(人)(家)(,居)(住)(非)(常)(分)(散)(,小)(孩)(子)(上)(学)(需)(翻)(越)(几)(座)(山)(,村)(民)(去)(买)(东)(西)(也)(非)(常)(不)(方)(便)(。后)(来)(,广)(东)(省)(推)(行)(“双)(到)(”扶)(贫)(,将)(那)(些)(分)(散)(在)(高)(寒)(山)(区)(的)(贫)(困)(居)(民)(迁)(下)(山)(来)(,在)(城)(郊)(或)(他)(们)(  的)(居)(住)(地)(附)(近)(兴)(建)(安)(置)(小)(区)(,并)(配)(套)(了)(学)(校)(、污)(水)(处)(理)(、体)(育)(设)(施)(、道)(路)(、照)(明)(等)(公)(共)(设)(施)(。政)(府)(给)(予)(全)(额)(补)(贴)(,或)(部)(分)(补)(贴)(,解)(决)(了)(村)(民)(们)(资)(金)(不)(足)(的)(问)(题)(。这)(些)(村)(民)(集)(中)(在)(一)(个)(社)(区)(居)(住)(,村)(民)(们)(的)(生)(活)(条)(件)(立)(即)(得)(到)(了)(改)(善)(,跑)(步)(进)(入)(了)(城)(镇)(化)(社)(会)(。  未)(来)(,在)(条)(件)(允)(许)(的)(乡)(村)(,这)(种)(集)(中)(式)(居)(住)(的)(社)(区)(会)(越)(来)(越)(多)(,大)(量)(分)(散)(式)(布)(局)(的)(小)(乡)(村)(或)(许)(将)(会)(逐)(步)(消)(失)(,人)(口)(将)(被)(逐)(步)(集)(中)(到)(小)(城)(镇)(中)(,实)(现)(就)(地)(城)(镇)(化)(。从)(资)(源)(节)(约)(、提)(高)(资)(源)(利)(用)(率)(,实)(现)(规)(模)(化)(管)(理)(的)(角)(度)(看)(,这)(是)(一)(个)(必)(然)(发)(生)(的)(过)(程)(。事)(实)(上)(,现)(在)(国)(内)(很)(多)(地)(方)(已)(经)(出)(现)(了)(这)(种)(趋)(势)(。  这)(意)(味)(着)(,历)(史)(上)(构)(成)(中)(国)(农)(村)(主)(要)(社)(会)(形)(态)(的)(小)(乡)(村)(将)(会)(逐)(步)(退)(出)(历)(史)(舞)(台)(。  如)(今)(,城)(镇)(化)(的)(两)(种)(路)(径)(常)(被)(提)(起)(,一)(种)(是)(集)(中)(化)(发)(展)(,发)(展)(大)(城)(市)(、特)(大)(城)(市)(;一)(种)(是)(发)(展)(中)(小)(城)(市)(、加)(强)(乡)(镇)(建)(设)(,就)(地)(城)(镇)(化)(。前)(者)(是)(要)(将)(更)(多)(资)(源)(集)(中)(到)(中)(心)(城)(市)(;后)(者)(是)(将)(资)(源)(均)(衡)(分)(布)(。  就)(地)(城)(镇)(化)(的)(内)(涵)(是)(农)(村)(人)(口)(不)(向)(大)(中)(城)(市)(迁)(移)(,而)(是)(以)(中)(小)(城)(镇)(为)(依)(托)(,把)(散)(落)(的)(农)(村)(居)(民)(点)(适)(时)(适)(度)(聚)(集)(发)(展)(为)(新)(社)(区)(,并)(逐)(渐)(成)(长)(转)(化)(为)(新)(城)(镇)(,实)(现)(农)(民)(工)(人)(化)(、农)(业)(产)(业)(化)(、农)(村)(社)(区)(化)(,让)(农)(民)(在)(就)(业)(、社)(会)(保)(障)(、医)(疗)(教)(育)(、住)(房)(保)(障)(等)(方)(面)(逐)(步)(与)(市)(民)(同)(权)(。  目)(前)(,在)(中)(国)(占)(主)(导)(地)(位)(的)(是)(推)(动)(以)(特)(大)(城)(市)(为)(龙)(头)(的)(城)(市)(群)(建)(设)(。  资)(料)(显)(示)(,欧)(美)(高)(达)(70%以)(上)(的)(人)(口)(是)(聚)(焦)(在)(城)(市)(,而)(这)(70%的)(人)(口)(大)(部)(分)(又)(聚)(焦)(在)(城)(市)(群)(中)(。目)(前)(美)(国)(三)(大)(城)(市)(群)((大)(纽)(约)(区)(、五)(大)(湖)(区)(、大)(洛)(杉)(矶)(区)()的)(GDP占)(全)(美)(国)(的)(份)(额)(为)(67%,日)(本)(三)(大)(城)(市)(群)((大)(东)(京)(区)(、阪)(神)(区)(、名)(古)(屋)(区)()的)(GDP占)(全)(日)(本)(的)(份)(额)(则)(达)(到)(70%,其)(人)(口)(也)(相)(应)(大)(部)(分)(聚)(焦)(在)(此)(区)(域)(。  “中)(国)(需)(要)(在)(除)(开)(长)(三)(角)(、珠)(三)(角)(、环)(渤)(海)(湾)(这)(三)(大)(城)(市)(核)(心)(城)(市)(群)(外)(,选)(择)(在)(中)(国)(的)(中)(西)(部)(、东)(北)(地)(区)(,在)(发)(展)(条)(件)(较)(好)(、人)(口)(聚)(集)(较)(多)(、生)(态)(承)(受)(能)(力)(较)(强)(的)(区)(域)(,再)(建)(设)(数)(个)(以)(特)(大)(城)(市)(为)(龙)(头)(的)(城)(市)(群)(”。国)(际)(金)(融)(论)(坛)(城)(镇)(化)(研)(究)(中)(心)(主)(任)(易)(鹏)(认)(为)(。  据)(了)(解)(,国)(家)(已)(经)(制)(定)(了)(城)(市)(群)(的)(总)(体)(规)(划)(,详)(细)(的)(规)(划)(正)(在)(制)(定)(中)(,有)(关)(部)(委)(正)(在)(征)(求)(各)(方)(面)(的)(意)(见)(。  专)(家)(提)(出)(,中)(国)(城)(市)(群)(建)(设)(的)(重)(点)(的)(区)(域)(应)(该)(选)(在)(中)(国)(主)(体)(功)(能)(区)(规)(划)(的)(十)(八)(个)(重)(点)(区)(域)(之)(内)(,当)(前)(可)(以)(重)(点)(考)(虑)(长)(江)(中)(游)(城)(市)(群)(、成)(渝)(城)(市)(群)(、关)(中)(城)(市)(群)(、中)(原)(城)(市)(群)(,将)(其)(作)(为)(重)(点)(城)(市)(群)(,予)(以)(集)(聚)(建)(设)(。当)(然)(,这)(些)(都)(涉)(及)(到)(因)(地)(制)(宜)(、产)(业)(支)(撑)(、资)(金)(投)(入)(等)(一)(系)(列)(问)(题)(。  而)(一)(些)(经)(济)(发)(达)(地)(区)(则)(会)(出)(现)(大)(量)(的)(区)(域)(中)(心)(城)(市)(。  而)(在)(小)(社)(区)(与)(区)(域)(性)(中)(心)(城)(市)(之)(间)(,还)(应)(该)(有)(一)(个)(中)(间)(状)(态)(。  泛)(珠)(三)(角)(城)(市)(发)(展)(研)(究)(院)(院)(长)(王)(廉)(曾)(写)(过)(一)(本)(著)(作)(叫)(《中)(国)(城)(市)(化)(教)(程)(》,王)(廉)(认)(为)(,地)(理)(经)(济)(是)(行)(政)(经)(济)(的)(坐)(标)(化)(和)(市)(场)(化)(,而)(地)(理)(经)(济)(上)(升)(到)(地)(缘)(政)(治)(就)(是)(要)(构)(建)(区)(域)(的)(城)(镇)(链)(与)(产)(业)(链)(,而)(流)(域)(化)(的)(经)(济)(更)(要)(上)(升)(到)(地)(区)(合)(作)(的)(区)(域)(政)(治)(化)(层)(面)(。  在)(学)(界)(看)(来)(,一)(个)(大)(城)(市)(至)(少)(要)(达)(到)(100万)(城)(镇)(人)(口)(,才)(有)(可)(能)(形)(成)(良)(性)(的)(自)(我)(循)(环)(。而)(往)(下)(来)(看)(,对)(一)(个)(小)(城)(镇)(来)(说)(,3~5万)(人)(口)(是)(一)(个)(最)(基)(本)(的)(起)(点)(。根)(据)(发)(达)(国)(家)(经)(验)(,3~5万)(人)(口)(以)(下)(的)(城)(镇)(很)(难)(发)(展)(综)(合)(性)(的)(公)(共)(设)(施)(,并)(逐)(步)(走)(向)(衰)(落)(和)(负)(财)(政)(,其)(中)(涉)(及)(到)(基)(础)(设)(施)(建)(设)(等)(一)(系)(列)(城)(市)(资)(源)(的)(分)(配)(与)(建)(设)(问)(题)(。  王)(廉)(据)(此)(认)(为)(,粤)(北)(至)(少)(应)(延)(伸)(出)(三)(级)(“城)(镇)(链)(”,几)(个)(地)(级)(市)(的)(中)(心)(城)(区)(按)(照)(100万)(的)(人)(口)(规)(划)(,每)(个)(县)(至)(少)(延)(伸)(出)(一)(个)(10~30万)(人)(口)(的)(县)(城)(和)(N个)(3~5万)(的)(小)(城)(镇)(。究)(竟)(规)(划)(多)(少)(个)(,应)(该)(按)(照)(地)(区)(的)(资)(源)(禀)(赋)(、区)(域)(人)(口)(、国)(际)(走)(势)(,规)(划)(城)(镇)(链)(。  另)(一)(方)(面)(,区)(域)(性)(中)(心)(城)(市)(的)(人)(口)(规)(模)(和)(区)(域)(规)(模)(需)(要)(进)(行)(适)(当)(控)(制)(,并)(非)(越)(大)(越)(好)(。  在)(现)(有)(的)(行)(政)(体)(制)(下)(,地)(方)(长)(官)(掌)(控)(着)(一)(个)(区)(域)(的)(几)(乎)(所)(有)(资)(源)(,加)(上)(强)(调)(GDP考)(核)(导)(向)(,很)(容)(易)(导)(致)(资)(源)(向)(中)(心)(城)(市)(集)(中)(。目)(前)(,国)(内)(已)(经)(出)(现)(了)(数)(十)(个)(区)(域)(性)(中)(心)(城)(市)(、数)(百)(个)(县)(域)(中)(心)(城)(市)(就)(是)(明)(证)(。这)(导)(致)(资)(源)(均)(衡)(分)(布)(、发)(展)(中)(小)(城)(镇)(、实)(现)(就)(地)(城)(镇)(化)(的)(目)(标)(更)(难)(实)(现)(。  7.城)(镇)(化)(的)(中)(国)(梦)(  或)(许)(在)(不)(久)(的)(将)(来)(,农)(民)(们)(不)(用)(奔)(波)(进)(城)(,在)(不)(离)(土)(不)(离)(乡)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,就)(能)(过)(上)(和)(城)(里)(人)(一)(样)(的)(生)(活)(。问)(题)(是)(,这)(种)(美)(好)(景)(象)(是)(一)(种)(永)(远)(的)(奢)(望)(还)(是)(一)(个)(可)(以)(实)(现)(的)(中)(国)(梦)(?  实)(际)(上)(,中)(国)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(可)(以)(参)(照)(国)(外)(经)(验)(。法)(国)(的)(乡)(村)(在)(其)(古)(朴)(人)(文)(的)(乡)(村)(背)(后)(,是)(先)(进)(的)(农)(业)(装)(备)(、交)(通)(基)(础)(设)(施)(以)(及)(连)(贯)(的)(产)(业)(链)(做)(后)(盾)(。在)(这)(一)(过)(程)(中)(,政)(府)(扮)(演)(了)(至)(关)(重)(要)(的)(角)(色)(,其)(利)(用)(国)(家)(担)(保)(为)(农)(户)(提)(供)(长)(期)(低)(息)(贷)(款)(,同)(时)(农)(民)(购)(买)(农)(业)(机)(械)(还)(可)(以)(享)(受)(价)(格)(补)(贴)(。  走)(进)(德)(国)(的)(小)(镇)(,你)(会)(发)(现)(它)(的)(供)(电)(、供)(水)(、通)(讯)(等)(基)(础)(设)(施)(基)(本)(与)(城)(市)(无)(异)(,同)(时)(,乡)(村)(的)(医)(疗)(、购)(物)(、教)(育)(等)(配)(套)(建)(设)(也)(一)(应)(俱)(全)(,再)(加)(上)(环)(境)(的)(优)(美)(,让)(乡)(村)(有)(着)(城)(市)(不)(可)(替)(代)(的)(风)(情)(。  而)(在)(法)(律)(上)(,德)(国)(宪)(法)(规)(定)(选)(举)(、工)(作)(、迁)(徙)(、就)(学)(等)(公)(民)(权)(利)(一)(律)(平)(等)(,城)(乡)(之)(间)(社)(会)(保)(障)(体)(系)(差)(异)(不)(大)(。农)(民)(要)(进)(城)(,只)(需)(到)(市)(政)(局)(登)(记)(并)(且)(按)(章)(纳)(税)(,就)(可)(以)(成)(为)(城)(市)(居)(民)(,几)(乎)(没)(有)(城)(乡)(屏)(障)(。  在)(中)(国)(的)(城)(镇)(化)(进)(程)(中)(,农)(村)(建)(设)(也)(应)(该)(从)(城)(镇)(化)(、经)(济)(发)(展)(规)(划)(、政)(治)(体)(制)(改)(革)(等)(综)(合)(角)(度)(来)(观)(察)(和)(审)(视)(。  “城)(镇)(化)(不)(跟)(新)(农)(村)(配)(合)(起)(来)(,城)(镇)(化)(是)(发)(展)(起)(来)(不)(的)(,新)(农)(村)(新)(在)(哪)(?需)(要)(培)(养)(一)(些)(新)(型)(民)(营)(企)(业)(,那)(就)(是)(家)(庭)(农)(场)(专)(业)(生)(产)(合)(作)(社)(。”中)(华)(民)(营)(企)(业)(联)(合)(会)(会)(长)(保)(育)(钧)(说)(。  或)(许)(在)(不)(久)(的)(将)(来)(,农)(民)(们)(不)(用)(奔)(波)(进)(城)(,在)(不)(离)(土)(不)(离)(乡)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,就)(能)(过)(上)(和)(城)(里)(人)(一)(样)(的)(生)(活)(。  问)(题)(是)(,这)(种)(美)(好)(景)(象)(是)(一)(种)(永)(远)(的)(奢)(望)(还)(是)(一)(个)(可)(以)(实)(现)(的)(中)(国)(梦)(?
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